For word nerds, the real candy of Halloween is all the great words it gives out: werewolf, jack-o’-lantern, samhainophobia. But, as we so often see on this blog, sometimes it is the less unusual and more everyday word that can be the sweetest treat. Let’s have a look at just such a seasonal one: haunt. Its etymology really hits “home,” we might say.
The word haunt has been, well, haunting the English language since the early 13th century. But for all its spectral associations today, the word originally had nothing to do with ghosts.
As the Oxford English Dictionary (OED) records, the word’s earliest meanings refer to practicing some action habitually or frequenting a place habitually. This sense is preserved today in a noun form of haunt, as in an old haunt one used to visit often.
Now, Shakespeare has given us many spectacular ghosts, perhaps most dramatically in Hamlet. But Shakespeare has also given us – or at least popularized – the spookier shades of haunt, as many maintain. For this usage, the OED first cites 1597’s Richard II: “Some haunted by ghosts they haue deposed.” In this sense, it is a ghost that is frequently and habitually coming back to a place.
Earlier in the century, it is worth noting, haunt was already shaping up to signify other “unseen or immaterial visitants,” as the OED hauntingly puts it, such as disease, memories, thoughts, or feelings. This the OED records in Richard III also in that very same 1597: “Your beauty which did haunt me in my sleepe: To vndertake the death of all the world.” This usage of haunt, of course, lives on today.
Following the development of its source verb, haunted first drapes on its white sheet, so to speak, as early as 1711. We eventually get to haunted houses and the ghastly lore of their former tenants. The Online Etymology Dictionary states haunted house is attested by 1733.
There’s no place like home
But haunt might actually have a deeper connection to houses. The word comes from the French hanter, whose meaning echoes haunt‘s early senses in English. According to French philologists Baumgartner and Ménard, the ghostly sense of hanter in French was spread in that language thanks to 18th-century English gothic and fantasy fiction. This suggests that the ghostly haunt is original to English, though the Online Etymology Dictionary notes this meaning may have been active in Proto-Germanic.
From here, however, the etymological trail goes cold. We do have plenty of suggestions, though. Most converge on a Germanic root that produced English’s very own home – in Old English, hām, whose form may look familiar in the derivative hamlet (but not Prince Hamlet). Scholars like Eric Partridge and Ernest Klein pointed to a Scandinavian cognate heimta, “to bring home,” specifically cattle. (To get more technical and speculative, the Proto-Germanic root is *haimaz, derived from the Proto-Indo-European*tkei-, “to settle,” “to dwell,” or “to be home.”)
Walter Skeat, however, wasn’t fully satisfied. In addition to heimta, his work cites the Breton hent, “a path,” a nasalized Latin habitāre, “to dwell,” and Latin’s ambitus, “a going about,” which he considered to be the likeliest explanation.
For etymologists, it might just be the “origin unknown” or “origin obscure” that proves most, er, haunting, of all.
5 thoughts on “Home is where the haunt is”
Samhainophobia, now I’ll have to look that one up.
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If the development of “haunt” had originated or in part been influenced by Breton “hent” (a path) I would’ve expected there to be cognates in the Celtic languages with corroborating semantic supernatural senses of “haunted”? Geographically it would seem viable there could be a possible connection as Normandy shares a border with neighbouring Brittany and French sources state that: the verb hanter is…
“…bien attesté en Normandie, il a gagné le reste du domaine d’oïl.” (well-attested in Normandy, it spread to the rest of the Oïl languages.)
The French passage goes on to mention the ghostly sense influence of English language Gothic literature on French “hanter” but concludes with:
“mais le normand aussi a hanté, « fréquenté, visité par des spectres », et hant « fantôme, revenant » (But Norman (French) also had “hanté” (haunted), “frequented, visited by spectres” and “hant” (haunts) “phantom, ghost”.)
So could it be possible that what developed as the eldritch connotations of English “haunt” could’ve eventually crossed over from Scandinavian (“heimta”) influenced Norman French into English via Anglo-Norman French with the Norman invasion of England in 1066 rather than the ghostly “haunt” originating in English?
Returning to the Breton “hent” which is from Proto-Celtic *sentu- from PIE *sent- (“to head for, go”) I don’t know of any semantically related words in at least the Brythonic Celtic languages involving any cognates which are represented in Welsh: “hynt” (course, way), Cornish: “hyns” (course, path, road, way).
This seems like a strong theory, stronger yet in the face of the scant Celtic evidence for the word: “So could it be possible that what developed as the eldritch connotations of English “haunt” could’ve eventually crossed over from Scandinavian (“heimta”) influenced Norman French into English via Anglo-Norman French with the Norman invasion of England in 1066 rather than the ghostly “haunt” originating in English?”